Scientific article
Open access

Evaluation of the Psychometric Properties of the Arab Compulsive Internet Use Scale (CIUS) by Item Response Theory Modeling (IRT)

Publication date2022-09-24
First online date2022-09-24

Introduction: The psychometric properties of the Arab translation of the Compulsive Internet Use Scale (CIUS) have been previously studied by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) with AMOS software using the asymptotically distribution-free (ADF) estimator. Unidimensionality has been achieved at the cost of correlating several item variance errors. However, several reviews of SEM software packages and estimation methods indicate that the option of robust standard errors is not present in the AMOS package and that ADF estimation may yield biased parameter estimates. We therefore explored a second analysis through item response theory (IRT) using the parametric graded response model (GRM) and the marginal maximum likelihood (MML) estimation method embedded in the LTM package of R software. Differential item functioning (DIF) or item bias across subpopulations was also explored within IRT framework as different samples were investigated. The objective of the current study is to (1) analyze the Arab CIUS scale with IRT, (2) investigate DIF in three samples, and (3) contribute to the ongoing debate on Internet-use-related addictive behaviors using the CIUS items as a proxy.

Methods: We assessed three samples of people, one in Algeria and two in Lebanon, with a total of 1520 participants.

Results: Almost three out of every five items were highly related to the latent construct. However, the unidimensionality hypothesis was not supported. Furthermore, besides being locally dependent, the scale may be weakened by DIF across geographic regions. Some of the CIUS items related to increasing priority, impaired control, continued use despite harm, and functional impairment as well as withdrawal and coping showed good discriminative capabilities. Those items were endorsed more frequently than other CIUS items in people with higher levels of addictive Internet use.

Conclusions: Contrary to earlier ADF estimation findings, unidimensionality of the CIUS scale was not supported by IRT parametric GRM in a large sample of Arab speaking participants. The results may be helpful for scale revision. By proxy, the study contributes to testing the validity of addiction criteria applied to Internet use related-addictive behaviors.

  • Compulsive Internet Use Scale
  • Compulsive internet use
  • Internet addiction
  • Item response theory
  • Arabs
  • Behavior, Addictive
  • Humans
  • Internet
  • Internet Use
  • Psychometrics / methods
  • Reproducibility of Results
Citation (ISO format)
KHAZAAL, Yasser et al. Evaluation of the Psychometric Properties of the Arab Compulsive Internet Use Scale (CIUS) by Item Response Theory Modeling (IRT). In: International journal of environmental research and public health, 2022, vol. 19, n° 19, p. 12099. doi: 10.3390/ijerph191912099
Main files (1)
Article (Published version)
ISSN of the journal1660-4601

Technical informations

Creation10/12/2022 12:04:00 PM
First validation10/12/2022 12:04:00 PM
Update time03/16/2023 8:43:32 AM
Status update03/16/2023 8:43:31 AM
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