en
Scientific article
Review
Open access
English

Comparing the effectiveness of hand hygiene techniques in reducing the microbial load and covering hand surfaces in healthcare workers: updated systematic review

Published inAmerican journal of infection control, vol. 50, no. 10, p. 1079-1090
Publication date2022-10
First online date2022-02-12
Abstract

Background: This review, commissioned by the World Health Organization (WHO), examined the effectiveness of the WHO 6-step hand hygiene (HH) technique in reducing microbial load on hands and covering hand surfaces, and compared its effectiveness to other techniques.

Methods: Medline, CINAHL, ProQuest, Web of Science, Mednar, and Google Scholar were searched for primary studies, published in English (1978-February 2021), evaluating the microbiological effectiveness or hand surface coverage of HH techniques in healthcare workers. Reviewers independently performed quality assessment using Cochrane tools. The protocol for the narrative review was registered (PROSPERO 2021: CRD42021236138).

Results: Nine studies were included. Evidence demonstrated that the WHO technique reduced microbial load on hands. One study found the WHO technique more effective than the 3-step technique (P = .02), while another found no difference between these 2 techniques (P = .08). An adapted 3-step technique was more effective than the WHO technique in laboratory settings (P = .021), but not in clinical practice (P = .629). One study demonstrated that an adapted 6-step technique was more effective than the WHO technique (P = .001). Evidence was heterogeneous in application time, product, and volume. All studies were high risk of bias.

Conclusions: Eight studies found that the WHO 6-step technique reduced microbial load on healthcare workers' hands; but the studies were heterogeneous and further research is required to identify the most effective, yet feasible technique.

eng
Keywords
  • Effectiveness
  • Hand hygiene
  • Microbial load
  • Systematic review
  • Technique
  • Hand / microbiology
  • Hand Hygiene / methods
  • Health Personnel
  • Humans
  • World Health Organization
Citation (ISO format)
PRICE, Lesley et al. Comparing the effectiveness of hand hygiene techniques in reducing the microbial load and covering hand surfaces in healthcare workers: updated systematic review. In: American journal of infection control, 2022, vol. 50, n° 10, p. 1079–1090. doi: 10.1016/j.ajic.2022.02.003
Main files (1)
Article (Published version)
Secondary files (1)
Identifiers
ISSN of the journal0196-6553
71views
25downloads

Technical informations

Creation03/02/2022 3:23:00 PM
First validation03/02/2022 3:23:00 PM
Update time03/16/2023 8:40:09 AM
Status update03/16/2023 8:40:07 AM
Last indexation02/01/2024 9:03:48 AM
All rights reserved by Archive ouverte UNIGE and the University of GenevaunigeBlack