Scientific article
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Geochemical constraints on the origin of mafic and silicic magmas at Cordón El Guadal, Tatara-San Pedro Complex, central Chile

Published inContributions to mineralogy and petrology, vol. 131, no. 4, p. 393-411
Publication date1998-05-28

The aim of this study is to quantify the crustal differentiation processes and sources responsible for the origin of basaltic to dacitic volcanic rocks present on Cordón El Guadal in the Tatara-San Pedro Complex (TSPC). This suite is important for understanding the origin of evolved magmas in the southern Andes because it exhibits the widest compositional range of any unconformity-bound sequence of lavas in the TSPC. Major element, trace element, and Sr-isotopic data for the Guadal volcanic rocks provide evidence for complex crustal magmatic histories involving up to six differentiation mechanisms. The petrogenetic processes for andesitic and dacitic lavas containing undercooled inclusions of basaltic andesitic and andesitic magma include: (1) assimilation of garnet-bearing, possibly mafic lower continental crust by primary mantle-derived basaltic magmas; (2) fractionation of olivine + clinopyroxene + Ca-rich plagioclase + Fe-oxides in present non-modal proportions from basaltic magmas at ∼4–8 kbar to produce high-Al basalt and basaltic andesitic magmas; (3) vapor-undersaturated (i.e., PH2O<PTOTAL) partial melting of gabbroic crustal rocks at ∼3–7 kbar to produce dacitic magmas; (4) crystallization of plagioclase-rich phenocryst assemblages from dacitic magmas in shallow reservoirs; (5) intrusion of basaltic andesitic magmas into shallow reservoirs containing crystal-rich dacitic magmas and subsequent mixing to produce hybrid basaltic andesitic and andesitic magmas; and (6)␣formation and disaggregation of undercooled basaltic andesitic and andesitic inclusions during eruption from shallow chambers to form commingled, mafic inclusion-bearing andesitic and dacitic lavas flows. Collectively, the geochemical and petrographic features of the Guadal volcanic rocks are interpreted to reflect the development of shallow silicic reservoirs within a region characterized by high crustal temperatures due to focused basaltic activity and high magma supply rates. On the periphery of the silicic system where magma supply rates and crustal temperatures were lower, cooling and crystallization were more important than bulk crustal melting or assimilation.

  • Olivine
  • Continental Crust
  • PH2O
  • Silicic Magma
  • Petrographic Feature
Citation (ISO format)
FEELEY, Todd, DUNGAN, Michael, FREY, F.A. Geochemical constraints on the origin of mafic and silicic magmas at Cordón El Guadal, Tatara-San Pedro Complex, central Chile. In: Contributions to mineralogy and petrology, 1998, vol. 131, n° 4, p. 393–411. doi: 10.1007/s004100050400
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ISSN of the journal0010-7999

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