Scientific article
Open access

Vitamin D: Dosing, levels, form, and route of administration: Does one approach fit all?

Published inReviews in endocrine and metabolic disorders, vol. 22, no. 4, p. 1201-1218
Publication date2021-12-23
First online date2021-12-23

The 4th International Conference on Controversies in Vitamin D was held as a virtual meeting in September, 2020, gathering together leading international scientific and medical experts in vitamin D. Since vitamin D has a crucial role in skeletal and extra-skeletal systems, the aim of the Conference was to discuss improved management of vitamin D dosing, therapeutic levels and form or route of administration in the general population and in different clinical conditions. A tailored approach, based on the specific mechanisms underlying vitamin D deficiency in different diseases that were discussed, was recommended. Specifically, in comparison to healthy populations, higher levels of vitamin D and greater amounts of vitamin D were deemed necessary in osteoporosis, diabetes mellitus, obesity (particularly after bariatric surgery), and in those treated with glucocorticoids. Emerging and still open issues were related to target vitamin D levels and the role of vitamin D supplementation in COVID-19 since low vitamin D may predispose to SARS-CoV-2 infection and to worse COVID-19 outcomes. Finally, whereas oral daily cholecalciferol appears to be the preferred choice for vitamin D supplementation in the general population, and in most clinical conditions, active vitamin D analogs may be indicated in patients with hypoparathyroidism and severe kidney and liver insufficiency. Parenteral vitamin D administration could be helpful in malabsorption syndromes or in states of vitamin D resistance.Specific guidelines for desired levels of vitamin D should be tailored to the different conditions affecting vitamin D metabolism with the goal to define disease-specific normative values.

  • Bone
  • COVID-19
  • Extraskeletal effects
  • Obesity
  • Parathyroid hormone
  • Vitamin D
Citation (ISO format)
BILEZIKIAN, John P. et al. Vitamin D: Dosing, levels, form, and route of administration: Does one approach fit all? In: Reviews in endocrine and metabolic disorders, 2021, vol. 22, n° 4, p. 1201–1218. doi: 10.1007/s11154-021-09693-7
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Article (Published version)
ISSN of the journal1389-9155

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