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Scientific article
Review
Open access
English

Intracranial aneurysm wall (in)stability–current state of knowledge and clinical perspectives

Published inNeurosurgical review, vol. 45, no. 2, p. 1233-1253
Publication date2022
First online date2021-11-06
Abstract

Intracranial aneurysm (IA), a local outpouching of cerebral arteries, is present in 3 to 5% of the population. Once formed, an IA can remain stable, grow, or rupture. Determining the evolution of IAs is almost impossible. Rupture of an IA leads to subarachnoid hemorrhage and affects mostly young people with heavy consequences in terms of death, disabilities, and socioeconomic burden. Even if the large majority of IAs will never rupture, it is critical to determine which IA might be at risk of rupture. IA (in)stability is dependent on the composition of its wall and on its ability to repair. The biology of the IA wall is complex and not completely understood. Nowadays, the risk of rupture of an IA is estimated in clinics by using scores based on the characteristics of the IA itself and on the anamnesis of the patient. Classification and prediction using these scores are not satisfying and decisions whether a patient should be observed or treated need to be better informed by more reliable biomarkers. In the present review, the effects of known risk factors for rupture, as well as the effects of biomechanical forces on the IA wall composition, will be summarized. Moreover, recent advances in high-resolution vessel wall magnetic resonance imaging, which are promising tools to discriminate between stable and unstable IAs, will be described. Common data elements recently defined to improve IA disease knowledge and disease management will be presented. Finally, recent findings in genetics will be introduced and future directions in the field of IA will be exposed.

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Citation (ISO format)
MOREL, Sandrine, BIJLENGA, Philippe Alexandre Pierre, KWAK, Brenda. Intracranial aneurysm wall (in)stability–current state of knowledge and clinical perspectives. In: Neurosurgical review, 2022, vol. 45, n° 2, p. 1233–1253. doi: 10.1007/s10143-021-01672-5
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ISSN of the journal0344-5607
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