Scientific article

The interleukin (IL)-1 cytokine family--Balance between agonists and antagonists in inflammatory diseases

Published inCytokine, vol. 76, no. 1, p. 25-37
Publication date2015-11
First online date2015-07-13

The interleukin (IL)-1 family of cytokines comprises 11 members, including 7 pro-inflammatory agonists (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-18, IL-33, IL-36α, IL-36β, IL-36γ) and 4 defined or putative antagonists (IL-1R antagonist (IL-1Ra), IL-36Ra, IL-37, and IL-38) exerting anti-inflammatory activities. Except for IL-1Ra, IL-1 cytokines do not possess a leader sequence and are secreted via an unconventional pathway. In addition, IL-1β and IL-18 are produced as biologically inert pro-peptides that require cleavage by caspase-1 in their N-terminal region to generate active proteins. N-terminal processing is also required for full activity of IL-36 cytokines. The IL-1 receptor (IL-1R) family comprises 10 members and includes cytokine-specific receptors, co-receptors and inhibitory receptors. The signaling IL-1Rs share a common structure with three extracellular immunoglobulin (Ig) domains and an intracellular Toll-like/IL-1R (TIR) domain. IL-1 cytokines bind to their specific receptor, which leads to the recruitment of a co-receptor and intracellular signaling. IL-1 cytokines induce potent inflammatory responses and their activity is tightly controlled at the level of production, protein processing and maturation, receptor binding and post-receptor signaling by naturally occurring inhibitors. Some of these inhibitors are IL-1 family antagonists, while others are IL-1R family members acting as membrane-bound or soluble decoy receptors. An imbalance between agonist and antagonist levels can lead to exaggerated inflammatory responses. Several genetic modifications or mutations associated with dysregulated IL-1 activity and autoinflammatory disorders were identified in mouse models and in patients. These findings paved the road to the successful use of IL-1 inhibitors in diseases that were previously considered as untreatable.

  • Autoinflammatory disorders
  • Cytokine antagonists
  • Inflammasome
  • Interleukin-1
  • Animals
  • Caspase 1 / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Inflammation / immunology
  • Inflammation / metabolism
  • Interleukin-1 / agonists
  • Interleukin-1 / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Interleukin-1 / chemistry
  • Interleukin-1 / metabolism
  • Interleukin-18 / immunology
  • Interleukin-18 / metabolism
  • Interleukin-1beta / immunology
  • Interleukin-1beta / metabolism
  • Interleukin-33 / agonists
  • Interleukin-33 / immunology
  • Interleukins / agonists
  • Interleukins / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Interleukins / immunology
  • Mice
  • Receptors, Interleukin-1 / chemistry
  • Receptors, Interleukin-1 / metabolism
  • Signal Transduction
Citation (ISO format)
PALOMO, Jennifer et al. The interleukin (IL)-1 cytokine family--Balance between agonists and antagonists in inflammatory diseases. In: Cytokine, 2015, vol. 76, n° 1, p. 25–37. doi: 10.1016/j.cyto.2015.06.017
Main files (1)
Article (Published version)
ISSN of the journal1043-4666

Technical informations

Creation10/22/2021 11:25:00 AM
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Update time03/16/2023 1:35:14 AM
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