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Scientific article
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English

Macular edema associated with non-infectious uveitis: pathophysiology, etiology, prevalence, impact and management challenges

Published inClinical Ophthalmology, vol. 13, p. 1761-1777
Publication date2019
Abstract

Macular edema (ME) is the most common sight-threatening complication in uveitis. The diagnostic and therapeutic management of the uveitic macular edema (UME) might be challenging due to the complex diagnostic workup and the difficulties physicians face to find the underlying cause, and due to its usually recurrent nature and the fact that it can be refractory to conventional treatment. Some of the mild cases can be treated with topical steroids, which can be combined with non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs. However, immunomodulators such as methotrexate, tacrolimus, azathioprine, cyclosporine and mycophenolate mofetil together with anti-tumor necrosis factor-α (anti-TNF alpha) monoclonal antibodies such as adalimumab and infliximab, may be required to control the inflammation and the associated ME in refractory cases, or when an underlying disease is present. This review of the literature will focus mostly on the non-infectious UME.

Keywords
  • NSAIDs
  • Anti-TNF alpha
  • Corticosteroids
  • Immunomodulators
  • Macular edema
  • Non-infectious uveitis
Citation (ISO format)
MASSA, Horace et al. Macular edema associated with non-infectious uveitis: pathophysiology, etiology, prevalence, impact and management challenges. In: Clinical Ophthalmology, 2019, vol. 13, p. 1761–1777. doi: 10.2147/OPTH.S180580
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Article (Published version)
Identifiers
ISSN of the journal1177-5467
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