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Diagnostic contribution of metabolic workup for neonatal inherited metabolic disorders in the absence of expanded newborn screening

Bower, Alexandra
Imbard, Apolline
Benoist, Jean-François
Pichard, Samia
Rigal, Odile
Schiff, Manuel
Published in Scientific reports. 2019, vol. 9, no. 1, 14098
Abstract Inherited metabolic disorders (IMDs) in neonates are a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for the neonatologist, with the priority being to rapidly flag the treatable diseases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the contribution of targeted metabolic testing for diagnosing suspected IMDs on the basis of suggestive clinical setting or family history in neonates. We conducted an observational study over five years, from January 1st, 2010 to December 31, 2014 in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) at Robert Debré University Hospital, Paris, France. We assessed the number of neonates for whom a metabolic testing was performed, the indication for each metabolic test and the diagnostic yield of this selected metabolic workup for diagnosing an IMD. Metabolic testing comprised at least one of the following testings: plasma, urine or cerebrospinal fluid amino acids, urine organic acids, plasma acylcarnitine profile, and urine mucopolysaccharides and oligosaccharides. 11,301 neonates were admitted at the neonatal ICU during the study period. One hundred and ninety six neonates underwent metabolic testing. Eleven cases of IMDs were diagnosed. This diagnostic approach allowed the diagnosis, treatment and survival of 4 neonates (maple syrup urine disease, propionic acidemia, carnitine-acylcarnitine translocase deficiency and type 1 tyrosinemia). In total, metabolic testing was performed for 1.7% of the total number of neonates admitted in the NICU over the study period. These included 23% finally unaffected neonates with transient abnormalities, 5.6% neonates suffering from an identified IMD, 45.4% neonates suffering from a non-metabolic identified disease and 26% neonates with chronic abnormalities but for whom no final causal diagnosis could be made. In conclusion, as expected, such a metabolic targeted workup allowed the diagnosis of classical neonatal onset IMDs in symptomatic newborns. However, this workup remained normal or unspecific for 94.4% of the tested patients. It allowed excluding an IMD in 68.4% of the tested neonates. In spite of the high rate of normal results, such a strategy seems acceptable due to the severity of the symptoms and the need for immediate treatment when available in neonatal IMDs. However, its cost-effectiveness remains low especially in a clinically targeted population in a country where newborn screening is still unavailable for IMDs except for phenylketonuria in 2019.
Keywords Metabolic disordersPaediatric research
PMID: 31575911
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Research group Prévention des complications néonatales d'origine périnatale (990)
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BOWER, Alexandra et al. Diagnostic contribution of metabolic workup for neonatal inherited metabolic disorders in the absence of expanded newborn screening. In: Scientific Reports, 2019, vol. 9, n° 1, p. 14098. doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-50518-0

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Deposited on : 2020-06-18

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