Scientific article
Open access

Everything you wanted to know about phase and reference frequency in one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy

Published inMagnetic Resonance in Chemistry, vol. 58, no. 5, no. Tutorial Special Issue, p. 376-389
Publication date2020

The fundamental concept of phase discussed in this tutorial aimed at providing students with an explanation of the delays and processing parameters they may find in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) pulse programs. We consider the phase of radio‐frequency pulses, receiver, and magnetization and how all these parameters are related to phases and offsets of signals in spectra. The impact of the off‐resonance effect on the phase of the magnetization is discussed before presenting an overview of how adjustment of the time reference of the free induction decay avoids first‐order correction of the phase of spectra. The main objective of this tutorial is to show how the relative phase of a pulse and the receiver can be used to change the reference frequency along direct and indirect dimensions of NMR experiments. Unusual of phase incrementation with non‐90° angles will be illustrated on one‐ and two‐dimensional NMR spectra.

  • Carrier frequency
  • FOPA
  • NMR spectroscopy
  • Phase
  • Quadrature
  • Reference frequency
  • TPPI
  • Swiss National Science Foundation - 200021-147069, 206021-128746, 200020-126525
Citation (ISO format)
SHEBERSTOV, Kirill, SISTARE GUARDIOLA, Eduard, JEANNERAT, Damien. Everything you wanted to know about phase and reference frequency in one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy. In: Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry, 2020, vol. 58, n° 5, p. 376–389. doi: 10.1002/mrc.4938
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Article (Published version)
Article (Accepted version)
ISSN of the journal0749-1581

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