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Fundamental limits on low-temperature quantum thermometry with finite resolution

Potts, Patrick P.
Published in Quantum. 2019, vol. 3, p. 161
Abstract While the ability to measure low temperatures accurately in quantum systems is important in a wide range of experiments, the possibilities and the fundamental limits of quantum thermometry are not yet fully understood theoretically. Here we develop a general approach to low-temperature quantum thermometry, taking into account restrictions arising not only from the sample but also from the measurement process. We derive a fundamental bound on the minimal uncertainty for any temperature measurement that has a finite resolution. A similar bound can be obtained from the third law of thermodynamics. Moreover, we identify a mechanism enabling sub-exponential scaling, even in the regime of finite resolution. We illustrate this effect in the case of thermometry on a fermionic tight-binding chain with access to only two lattice sites, where we find a quadratic divergence of the uncertainty. We also give illustrative examples of ideal quantum gases and a square-lattice Ising model, highlighting the role of phase transitions.
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POTTS, Patrick P., BRASK, Jonatan, BRUNNER, Nicolas. Fundamental limits on low-temperature quantum thermometry with finite resolution. In: Quantum, 2019, vol. 3, p. 161. doi: 10.22331/q-2019-07-09-161 https://archive-ouverte.unige.ch/unige:127272

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Deposited on : 2019-12-03

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