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Tumor-associated lymphatic vessel features and immunomodulatory functions

Published inFrontiers in Immunology, vol. 10, 720
Publication date2019
Abstract

The lymphatic system comprises a network of lymphoid tissues and vessels that drains the extracellular compartment of most tissues. During tumor development, lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) substantially expand in response to VEGFR-3 engagement by VEGF-C produced in the tumor microenvironment, a process known as tumor-associated lymphangiogenesis. Lymphatic drainage from the tumor to the draining lymph nodes consequently increases, powering interstitial flow in the tumor stroma. The ability of a tumor to induce and activate lymphatic growth has been positively correlated with metastasis. Much effort has been made to identify genes responsible for tumor-associated lymphangiogenesis. Inhibition of lymphangiogenesis with soluble VEGFR-3 or with specific monoclonal antibodies decreases tumor spread to LNs in rodent models. Importantly, tumor-associated lymphatics do not only operate as tumor cell transporters but also play critical roles in anti-tumor immunity. Therefore, metastatic as well as primary tumor progression can be affected by manipulating tumor-associated lymphatic remodeling or function. Here, we review and discuss our current knowledge on the contribution of LECs immersed in the tumor microenvironment as immunoregulators, as well as a possible functional remodeling of LECs subsets depending on the organ microenvironment.

Keywords
  • Anti-tumor immune response
  • Lymphangiogenesis
  • Lymphatic vessels
  • Metastasis
  • Tumor microenvironment
Citation (ISO format)
GARNIER, Laure, GKOUNTIDI, Anastasia-Olga, HUGUES, Stéphanie. Tumor-associated lymphatic vessel features and immunomodulatory functions. In: Frontiers in Immunology, 2019, vol. 10, p. 720. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2019.00720
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ISSN of the journal1664-3224
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Creation10/28/2019 8:49:00 AM
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