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IDH1 immunohistochemistry reactivity and mosaic IDH1 or IDH2 somatic mutations in pediatric sporadic enchondroma and enchondromatosis

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Published in Virchows Archiv. 2019
Abstract Mosaic somatic mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1/2 (IDH1/2) genes have been identified in most enchondromas by targeted mutation analysis. Next-generation sequencing (NGS), that may detect even low-level mosaic mutation rates, has not previously been applied to enchondromas. Immunohistochemistry using the H09 clone is routinely used as a surrogate for the common R132H IDH1 mutation in gliomas. We compared immunohistochemistry and NGS results in a series of 13 enchondromas from 8 pediatric patients. NGS identified a heterozygous IDH mutation in all enchondromas, showing identical mutation status in patients with multiple tumors assessed, thereby confirming somatic mosaicism. A majority of the tumors harbored an IDH1 mutation (p.R132H in 3 tumors; p.R132C in 4 tumors from 2 patients; p.R132L and p.R132G in one tumor each). A p.R172S IDH2 mutation was identified in 4 enchondromas, but not in the ependymoma from one patient with Ollier disease, who further displayed a heterozygous STK11 missense mutation. IDH mutation rates varied between 14% (indicative of mutations in 28% of the cells and of intratumoral mosaicism) and 45% (tumor content was close to 100%). Cytoplasmic H09 reactivity was observed as expected in tumors with an IDH1 p.R132H mutation; cross-reactivity was seen with the p.R132L variant. This first NGS study of pediatric enchondromas confirms that IDH mutations may occur in a mosaic fashion. STK11 gene mutations may provide insights in the development of multiple cartilaginous tumors in enchondromatosis, this tumor suppressor gene having been shown in animal models to regulate both chondrocyte maturation and growth plate organization during development.
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PMID: 31240473
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SAIJI, Essia et al. IDH1 immunohistochemistry reactivity and mosaic IDH1 or IDH2 somatic mutations in pediatric sporadic enchondroma and enchondromatosis. In: Virchows Archiv, 2019. doi: 10.1007/s00428-019-02606-9 https://archive-ouverte.unige.ch/unige:123494

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Deposited on : 2019-09-23

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