Scientific article
Open access

Virtual humans: thirty years of research, what next?

Published inThe Visual Computer, vol. 21, no. 12, p. 997-1015
  • Open Access - Licence nationale Springer 
Publication date2005

In this paper, we present research results and future challenges in creating realistic and believable Virtual Humans. To realize these modeling goals, real-time realistic representation is essential, but we also need interactive and perceptive Virtual Humans to populate the Virtual Worlds. Three levels of modeling should be considered to create these believable Virtual Humans: 1) realistic appearance modeling, 2) realistic, smooth and flexible motion modeling, and 3) realistic high-level behaviors modeling. At first, the issues of creating virtual humans with better skeleton and realistic deformable bodies are illustrated. To give a level of believable behavior, challenges are laid on generating on the fly flexible motion and complex behaviours of Virtual Humans inside their environments using a realistic perception of the environment. Interactivity and group behaviours are also important parameters to create believable Virtual Humans which have challenges in creating believable relationship between real and virtual humans based on emotion and personality, and simulating realistic and believable behaviors of groups and crowds. Finally, issues in generating realistic virtual clothed and haired people are presented.

Research group
Citation (ISO format)
MAGNENAT THALMANN, Nadia, THALMANN, Daniel. Virtual humans: thirty years of research, what next? In: The Visual Computer, 2005, vol. 21, n° 12, p. 997–1015. doi: 10.1007/s00371-005-0363-6
Main files (1)
Article (Published version)
ISSN of the journal0178-2789

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