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Imidazole H3-antagonists: relationship between structure and ex vivo binding to rat brain H3-receptors
|Published in||European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2004, vol. 23, no. 1, p. 89-98|
|Abstract||H3-antagonists possess promising pharmacological effects on awakening, learning and memory, but few data on their access to the central nervous system (CNS) have been reported so far. The purpose of this work was to investigate the relationships between structure and brain penetration of a series of H3-antagonists, using ex vivo binding experiments in rats. H3-antagonists belonging to different chemical classes but all having an imidazole ring, an alkyl spacer, a polar fragment and a lipophilic ending group, were selected among the numerous H3-antagonists recently described by us. Ex vivo binding studies were performed by inhibiting specific [3H]-(R)-alpha-methylhistamine ([3H]-RAMHA) binding to rat cerebral cortical membranes following H3-antagonist peripheral administration. Ionization constants and partition coefficients in n-octanol/water and 1,2-dichloroethane/water were determined by the potentiometric pH-metric method and were compared to the ex vivo binding potencies to analyse structure-property relationships (SPR). In the ex vivo assay, the H3-antagonists showed different potencies (pED50) not correlated to their in vitro H3-receptor binding affinities (pKi). Compound 4a, having a benzothiazol-2-yl-thioethyl chain, showed high ex vivo potency (ED50=1.35 mg kg(-1) i.p.) and a fast brain penetration, eliciting maximal displacement of [3H]-RAMHA already 5 min after i.v. or i.p. administration. Ex vivo binding assays of three compounds, following i.v. and i.p. administration, showed that the observed i.p. ex vivo potencies were not significantly affected by biotransformation. Within the set of compounds, those having a better ability to reach the CNS had a logDoct(7.4) in the range 2-3.5, and a DeltalogPoct-dce < 2. The combined use of two easily measurable physicochemical descriptors, namely logDoct(7.4) (apparent lipophilicity at pH 7.4) and DeltalogPoct-dce (a descriptor of H-bond donor capacity) allowed to model brain permeation of the majority of the compounds examined.|
|Keywords||Animals — Binding, Competitive/drug effects — Brain/drug effects/*metabolism — Chemistry, Physical — Female — Histamine Agonists/metabolism — Histamine Antagonists/*pharmacokinetics/*pharmacology — Hydrogen Bonding — Hydrogen-Ion Concentration — Imidazoles/*pharmacokinetics/*pharmacology — Lipids/chemistry — Liver/drug effects/metabolism — Methylhistamines/metabolism — Physicochemical Phenomena — Potentiometry — Rats — Rats, Wistar — Receptors, Histamine H3/*drug effects — Solubility — Structure-Activity Relationship|