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The vestibular system as a model of sensorimotor transformations. A combined in vivo and in vitro approach to study the cellular mechanisms of gaze and posture stabilization in mammals
|Published in||Progress in Neurobiology. 1997, vol. 51, no. 3, p. 243-286|
|Abstract||To understand the cellular mechanisms underlying behaviours in mammals, the respective contributions of the individual properties characterizing each neuron, as opposed to the properties emerging from the organization of these neurons in functional networks, have to be evaluated. This requires the use, in the same species, of various in vivo and in vitro experimental preparations. The present review is meant to illustrate how such a combined in vivo in vitro approach can be used to investigate the vestibular-related neuronal networks involved in gaze and posture stabilization, together with their plasticity, in the adult guinea-pig. Following first a general introduction on the vestibular system, the second section describes various in vivo experiments aimed at characterizing gaze and posture stabilization in that species. The third and fourth parts of the review deal with the combined in vivo-in vitro investigations undertaken to unravel the physiological and pharmacological properties of vestibulo-ocular and vestibulo-spinal networks, together with their functional implications. In particular, we have tried to use the central vestibular neurons as examples to illustrate how the preparation of isolated whole brain can be used to bridge the gap between the results obtained through in vitro, intracellular recordings on slices and those collected in vivo, in the behaving animal.|
|Keywords||Animals — Biogenic Monoamines/physiology — Brain/ physiology — Excitatory Amino Acids/physiology — Guinea Pigs — Humans — Mammals — Models, Neurological — Neuronal Plasticity — Neurons/ physiology — Neuropeptides/physiology — Posture — Somatosensory Cortex/ physiology — Spinal Cord/physiology — Vestibule, Labyrinth/ physiology — Vision, Ocular — Visual Perception|