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Opposite effects of noradrenaline and acetylcholine upon hypocretin/orexin versus melanin concentrating hormone neurons in rat hypothalamic slices
|Published in||Neuroscience. 2005, vol. 130, no. 4, p. 807-811|
|Abstract||Hypocretin/orexin (Hcrt/Orx) and melanin concentrating hormone (MCH) are peptides contained in overlapping cell groups of the lateral hypothalamus and commonly involved in regulating sleep-wake states and energy balance, though likely in different ways. To see if these neurons are similarly or differentially modulated by neurotransmitters of the major brainstem arousal systems, the effects of noradrenaline (NA) and carbachol, a cholinergic agonist, were examined on identified Hcrt/Orx and MCH neurons in rat hypothalamic slices. Whereas both agonists depolarized and excited Hcrt/Orx neurons, they both hyperpolarized MCH neurons by direct postsynaptic actions. According to the activity profiles of the noradrenergic locus coeruleus and cholinergic pontomesencephalic neurons across the sleep-waking cycle, the Hcrt/Orx neurons would be excited by NA and acetylcholine (ACh) and thus active during arousal, whereas the MCH neurons would be inhibited by NA and ACh and thus inactive during arousal while disinhibited and possibly active during slow wave sleep. According to the present pharmacological results, Hcrt/Orx neurons may thus stimulate arousal in tandem with other arousal systems, whereas MCH neurons may function in opposition with other arousal systems and thus potentially dampen arousal to promote sleep.|
|Keywords||Acetylcholine/pharmacology/ physiology — Action Potentials/drug effects/physiology — Animals — Arousal/drug effects/physiology — Cholinergic Agonists/pharmacology — Hypothalamic Area, Lateral/cytology/drug effects/ metabolism — Hypothalamic Hormones/ metabolism — Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/ metabolism — Locus Coeruleus/physiology — Melanins/ metabolism — Models, Neurological — Neural Inhibition/drug effects/physiology — Neural Pathways/cytology/drug effects/metabolism — Neurons/drug effects/ metabolism — Neuropeptides/ metabolism — Norepinephrine/pharmacology/ physiology — Organ Culture Techniques — Patch-Clamp Techniques — Pedunculopontine Tegmental Nucleus/physiology — Pituitary Hormones/ metabolism — Rats — Rats, Sprague-Dawley — Sleep/physiology — Synaptic Transmission/drug effects/physiology|