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Scientific article
English

Prospective randomized comparison of imipenem monotherapy with imipenem plus netilmicin for treatment of severe infections in nonneutropenic patients

Published inAntimicrobial agents and chemotherapy, vol. 38, no. 6, p. 1309-1313
Publication date1994
Abstract

Nosocomial pneumonia and sepsis, as well as severe diffuse peritonitis, must be treated early in order to prevent complications such as septic shock and organ dysfunctions. With the availability of new broad-spectrum and highly bactericidal antibiotics, the need of combining beta-lactams with aminoglycosides for the treatment of severe infections should be reassessed. A prospective randomized controlled study was performed to compare imipenem monotherapy with a combination of imipenem plus netilmicin in the empiric treatment of nosocomial pneumonia, nosocomial sepsis, and severe diffuse peritonitis. A total of 313 patients were enrolled, and 280 were assessable. The antibiotic treatment was successful in 113 of 142 patients (80%) given the monotherapy and in 119 of 138 patients (86%) given the combination (P = 0.19). The failure rates for the most important type of infection, i.e., pneumonia, were similar in the two groups, as well as the number of superinfections. While creatinine increase was associated with factors not related to antibiotic therapy for all eight patients of the monotherapy group, no factor other than the antibiotics could be found for 6 of the 14 cases of nephrotoxicity observed in the combination group (P = 0.014). Finally, the emergence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa resistant to imipenem occurred in 8 monotherapy patients and in 13 combination therapy patients. In conclusion, imipenem monotherapy appeared as effective as the combination of imipenem plus netilmicin for the treatment of severe infection. The addition of netilmicin increased nephrotoxicity, and it did not prevent the emergence of P. aeruginosa resistant to imipenem.

Keywords
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Bacteremia/drug therapy
  • Bacterial Infections/ drug therapy
  • Cross Infection/drug therapy
  • Drug Therapy, Combination/adverse effects/ therapeutic use
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Imipenem/adverse effects/ therapeutic use
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Netilmicin/adverse effects/therapeutic use
  • Peritonitis/drug therapy
  • Pneumonia/drug therapy
  • Prospective Studies
Citation (ISO format)
COMETTA, A. et al. Prospective randomized comparison of imipenem monotherapy with imipenem plus netilmicin for treatment of severe infections in nonneutropenic patients. In: Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy, 1994, vol. 38, n° 6, p. 1309–1313. doi: 10.1128/aac.38.6.1309
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ISSN of the journal0066-4804
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