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Proceedings chapter
Open access
English

Tamper-proofing of Electronic and Printed Text Documents via Robust Hashing and Data-Hiding

Presented at San Jose (USA), Jan 28 - Feb 1
PublisherSPIE
Collection
  • SPIE Proceedings; 6505
Publication date2007
Abstract

In this paper, we deal with the problem of authentication and tamper-proofing of text documents that can be distributed in electronic or printed forms. We advocate the combination of robust text hashing and text data-hiding technologies as an efficient solution to this problem. First, we consider the problem of text data-hiding in the scope of the Gel'fand-Pinsker data-hiding framework. For illustration, two modern text data-hiding methods, namely color index modulation (CIM) and location index modulation (LIM), are explained. Second, we study two approaches to robust text hashing that are well suited for the considered problem. In particular, both approaches are compatible with CIM and LIM. The first approach makes use of optical character recognition (OCR) and a classical cryptographic message authentication code (MAC). The second approach is new and can be used in some scenarios where OCR does not produce consistent results. The experimental work compares both approaches and shows their robustness against typical intentional/unintentional document distortions including electronic format conversion, printing, scanning, photocopying, and faxing.

Keywords
  • Watermarking
Citation (ISO format)
VILLAN SEBASTIAN, Renato Fisher et al. Tamper-proofing of Electronic and Printed Text Documents via Robust Hashing and Data-Hiding. In: Proceedings of SPIE-IS&T Electronic Imaging 2007, Security, Steganography, and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents IX. San Jose (USA). [s.l.] : SPIE, 2007. (SPIE Proceedings) doi: 10.1117/12.704097
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