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Insulinemia and leptinemia in geriatric patients: markers of the metabolic syndrome or of undernutrition?

Bonin-Guillaume, S.
Boillat, D.
Published in Diabetes & Metabolism. 2006, vol. 32, no. 3, p. 236-243
Abstract The metabolic syndrome (MS) describes a cluster of metabolic disturbances including type 2 diabetes and/or insulin resistance, hypertension, dyslipidemia and obesity, which predict a high risk of cardiovascular disorders. The associated hyperinsulinemia and hyperleptinemia may contribute to the cardiovascular risk. However, the operational value of the MS in elderly patients is questionable. We therefore investigated the prevalence and significance of the MS in geriatric care. In a survey of 98 consecutive admissions of diabetic patients,<40% had a MS; this is a low value compared to younger diabetic adults, due to a low prevalence of obesity and dyslipidemia. We found a high prevalence of low BMI (<20 kg/m2), hypoalbuminemia and low total cholesterol levels, suggesting that the MS may be modified by undernutrition. The interplay between the MS and undernutrition was further studied in 30 non-diabetic patients. Both leptinemia and insulin resistance indexes (HOMA-IR and QUICKI) were strongly associated with BMI and body fat (measured by Bioelectrical impedance Analysis). BMI, leptinemia and insulin resistance indexes were associated with the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) score. Thus, undernutrition is associated with low leptin and insulin levels and may obscure the association of these parameters with cardiovascular risk. In conclusion, the MS has a low prevalence in our population of elderly diabetic patients, and is of questionable prognostic value. It can be oveshadowed by undernutrition, which is associated with low body weight, leptinemia and insulin resistance indexes. Prevention of undernutrition and/or adjustment to its consequences should receive higher priority in the care of elderly diabetic patients.
PMID: 16799400
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BONIN-GUILLAUME, S. et al. Insulinemia and leptinemia in geriatric patients: markers of the metabolic syndrome or of undernutrition?. In: Diabetes & Metabolism, 2006, vol. 32, n° 3, p. 236-243. doi: 10.1016/s1262-3636(07)70274-4 https://archive-ouverte.unige.ch/unige:28059

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Deposited on : 2013-05-28

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