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Scientific article
English

Respiratory viruses in bronchoalveolar lavage: a hospital-based cohort study in adults

Published inThorax, vol. 64, no. 5, p. 399-404
Publication date2009
Abstract

BACKGROUND: The epidemiology of respiratory viruses and their potential clinical impact when recovered in lower respiratory specimens has not been established in the hospital setting. A study was performed to investigate the association between positive viral detection and respiratory infection in an at-risk population. METHODS: 299 adult patients who underwent bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) procedures were enrolled in a hospital-based prospective cohort study. Descriptive epidemiology is presented of 17 different respiratory viruses detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assays in BAL fluid specimens. Multivariate analysis was conducted to identify the clinical characteristics independently associated with the presence of virus. RESULTS: Of 522 BAL fluid specimens analysed, 81% were collected in adult transplant recipients or other immunocompromised patients. Overall, PCR assays identified viral nucleic acid in 91 BAL fluid samples (17.4%). Similar rates of virus-positive BAL fluid were found in the different subpopulations studied (p = 0.113). Coronaviruses were the most frequent (32.3%), followed by rhinovirus (22.6%), parainfluenza (19.5%), influenza (9.7%), respiratory synctial virus (8.6%), human metapneumovirus (4.2%) and bocavirus (3.1%). Multivariate analysis using mixed models showed that respiratory viral infections were associated with a lack of antibiotic treatment response (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.2 to 4.1) and the absence of radiological infiltrate (OR 0.3, 95% CI 0.2 to 0.8). In lung transplant recipients in whom a respiratory infection was suspected, the respiratory viral detection rate was 24.4% compared with 13.8% overall in other patients (p = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort of hospitalised adults, respiratory viruses detected in BAL fluid specimens were associated with respiratory symptoms, absence of radiological infiltrates and a poor response to antibiotic therapy.

Keywords
  • Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/*virology
  • Cohort Studies
  • Cross Infection/*virology
  • Female
  • Hospitalization
  • Humans
  • Lung Transplantation
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Opportunistic Infections/*diagnosis/virology
  • Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis/*virology
  • Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Seasons
  • Virus Diseases/diagnosis/*virology
  • Viruses/*isolation & purification
Citation (ISO format)
GARBINO, Jorge et al. Respiratory viruses in bronchoalveolar lavage: a hospital-based cohort study in adults. In: Thorax, 2009, vol. 64, n° 5, p. 399–404. doi: 10.1136/thx.2008.105155
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