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Title

Tephra sedimentation during the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption (Iceland) from deposit, radar, and satellite observations

Authors
Gouhier, M.
Pistolesi, M.
Cioni, R.
Hoskuldsson, A.
Ripepe, M.
Published in Journal of Geophysical Research. 2011, vol. 116, no. B12
Abstract The April-May 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull volcano (Iceland) was characterized by a nearly continuous injection of tephra in the atmosphere that affected various economic sectors in Iceland and caused a global-wide interruption of air traffic. Eruptive activity during 4-8 May 2010 was characterized based on short-duration physical parameters in order to capture transient eruptive behavior of a long-lasting eruption (i.e., total grainsize distribution, erupted mass and mass eruption rate averaged over 30-minute activity). Resulting 30-minute total grainsize distribution based on both ground and MSG-SEVIRI satellite measurements is characterized by Mdphi of about 2 phi and a fine-ash content of about 30wt%. Accumulation rate varied by two orders of magnitude with an exponential decay away from the vent, whereas Mdphi shows a linear increase until about 18 km from vent reaching a plateau of about 4.5 phi between 20-56 km. Associated mass eruption rate is in between 0.6-1.2 x 10^5 kg s^-1. In-situ sampling showed how fine ash mainly fell as aggregates of various typologies. About 5 to 9 wt% of the erupted mass remained in the cloud up to 1000 km from the vent, suggesting that nearly half of the ash >7 phi settled as aggregates within the first 60 km. Particle sphericity and shape factor varied between 0.4 and 1 with no clear correlation with size and distance from vent. Our experiments also demonstrate how satellite retrievals and Doppler radar grainsize detection can provide real-time description of the source term but for a limited particle-size range.
Keywords particle aggregationsettling velocitytephra depositsweak plumesMSG-SEVIRIPLUDIX
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Structures
Research group Physical Volcanology and Geological Risk
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BONADONNA, Costanza et al. Tephra sedimentation during the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption (Iceland) from deposit, radar, and satellite observations. In: Journal of Geophysical Research, 2011, vol. 116, n° B12. https://archive-ouverte.unige.ch/unige:19465

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Deposited on : 2012-04-19

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