Scientific article
Open access

How to investigate mild to moderate bleeding disorders and bleeding disorder of unknown cause

First online date2024-03-07

A bleeding tendency is one of the most common complaints observed by hematologists. It is challenging to differentiate a clinically insignificant bleeding from a bleeding phenotype that requires hemostatic evaluation and medical intervention. A thorough review of personal and familial history, objective assessment of bleeding severity using a bleeding assessment tool, and a focused physical examination are critical to correctly identifying suspected patients with mild to moderate bleeding disorders (MBDs). A basic laboratory work-up should be performed in all patients referred for a bleeding tendency. If a hemostatic abnormality is found such as evidence of von Willebrand disease, a platelet function disorder, or a coagulation factor deficiency, more extensive testing should be performed to further characterize the bleeding disorder. Conversely, if all results are normal the patient is considered to have bleeding disorder of unknown cause (BDUC). For patients with BDUC, further evaluation may include non-routine testing to look for rare bleeding disorders not detected by routine hemostasis tests, such as thrombomodulin-associated coagulopathy, tissue factor pathway inhibitor-related bleeding disorder, hyperfibrinolytic-bleeding disorders or impaired tissue factor production. In this review, we summarize the stepwise diagnostic procedure in MBDs and provide some insights into the biological features of BDUC.

  • Bleeding disorder of unknown cause
  • Coagulation factor deficiency
  • Hemostasis
  • Mild bleeding disorders
  • Platelet function disorders
Citation (ISO format)
CASINI, Alessandro, GEBHART, Johanna. How to investigate mild to moderate bleeding disorders and bleeding disorder of unknown cause. In: International journal of laboratory hematology, 2024. doi: 10.1111/ijlh.14266
Main files (1)
Article (Published version)
ISSN of the journal1751-5521

Technical informations

Creation03/20/2024 7:32:01 AM
First validation05/03/2024 4:29:08 PM
Update time05/03/2024 4:29:08 PM
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