Scientific article
Open access

Game-based learning as training to use a chemotherapy preparation robot

Published inJournal of oncology pharmacy practice, vol. 0, no. 0, p. 107815522311810
Publication date2023-06-08
First online date2023-06-08


In 2015, our university hospital pharmacy acquired the PharmaHelp robot system to automate part of its chemotherapy production. Complex technical use, downtime periods, and insufficient training caused a drop in motivation and disparities in operators’ knowledge. We created a short, playful, standardized, gamed-based training program to address this, and evaluated its impact.


Operators were classified as trainers or trainees according to their knowledge about Information and Communication Technologies. Before, after the training, and at 6 months (6M), their robot knowledge was assessed on a 0-24-scale, motivation and self-efficacy in using it on 0-to-100 scales. Pairwise comparison t-test with Bonferroni adjustment was used ( p < 0.05 considered significant). Satisfaction was measured using a six-point Likert scale. Trainer/trainee teams participated in 2-hour training sessions with three games and a debriefing. For “Knowing the manufacturing steps,” cards with the steps were placed in the correct order. For “Knowing the criteria for using the robot,” teams guessed whether certain compounds could be used with the robot. For “Knowing how to handle production errors,” the answer to each error (taken from real-life issues) was selected from four options.


Participants ( n = 14) were very satisfied about sessions’ interactivity and playfulness. Knowledge improved from 57% pretraining to 77% ( p < 0.005) to 76.6% (6M) ( p < 0.05 compared to pretraining). Motivation and self-efficacy, respectively, improved from 57.6% to 86.6% ( p < 0.05) to 70.4% (6M) and from 48.5% to 75.6% ( p < 0.05) to 60.2% (6M) ( p > 0.1 compared to pretraining) ( t-test).


This highly appreciated training program efficiently improved knowledge retention out to six months.

  • Pharmaceutical technology
  • Education
  • Game-based learning
  • Pharmacy
Citation (ISO format)
GARNIER, Alexandra Nadège Xenia, BONNABRY, Pascal, BOUCHOUD, Lucie. Game-based learning as training to use a chemotherapy preparation robot. In: Journal of oncology pharmacy practice, 2023, vol. 0, n° 0, p. 107815522311810. doi: 10.1177/10781552231181056
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Article (Published version)
ISSN of the journal1078-1552

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