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Scientific article
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Association between perioperative prophylaxis with cefuroxime plus metronidazole or amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and surgical site infections in paediatric uncomplicated appendectomy : a Swiss retrospective cohort study

Published inAntimicrobial resistance and infection control, vol. 12, no. 1, 106
Publication date2023-09-25
First online date2023-09-25
Abstract

Objective: We aimed to evaluate the association between post-appendectomy SSI rates and the two most commonly used regimens for perioperative antimicrobial prophylaxis in Swiss children.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study, analysing data from the Swiss national SSI surveillance database with a study period from 2014 to 2018. All hospitals undertaking paediatric appendectomies in Switzerland participate in the surveillance. We compared the cumulative incidence and odds of post-appendectomy SSI within 30 days of surgery in children ≤ 16 years of age undergoing appendectomy for uncomplicated appendicitis and receiving perioperative antimicrobial prophylaxis with cefuroxime plus metronidazole or with amoxicillin/clavulanic acid using multivariable adjusted logistic regression and propensity-score matching.

Results: A total of 6207 cases were recorded in the study time frame. Overall SSI cumulative incidence was 1.9% (n = 119). 4256 children (54.9% male, median (IQR) age 12 [10, 14] years) received either cefuroxime plus metronidazole (n = 2348, 53.8% male) or amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (n = 1491, 57.0% male). SSI cumulative incidence was 1.1% (25/2348) among children receiving cefuroxime plus metronidazole and 2.8% (42/1491, p < 0.001) when receiving amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. The administration of cefuroxime plus metronidazole was associated with statistically significantly lower SSI odds compared to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (aOR 0.35, 95%CI [0.20, 0.61], p < 0.001), and this was confirmed upon propensity-score matching.

Conclusion: We found lower odds of post-appendectomy SSI in children receiving cefuroxime plus metronidazole compared to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. Treating amoxicillin/clavulanic acid as the baseline, only 55 children need to receive cefuroxime plus metronidazole perioperative prophylaxis to avert one SSI. Existing guidelines recommending amoxicillin/clavulanic acid may need to be revised. Trial registration ISRCTN47727811, registered retrospectively.

eng
Keywords
  • Appendectomy
  • Comparative effectiveness analysis
  • Paediatric surgery
  • Perioperative antimicrobial prophylaxis
  • Surgical site infection
  • Switzerland
  • Child
  • Male
  • Humans
  • Female
  • Surgical Wound Infection / epidemiology
  • Surgical Wound Infection / prevention & control
  • Metronidazole / therapeutic use
  • Cefuroxime / therapeutic use
  • Appendectomy / adverse effects
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Switzerland / epidemiology
  • Amoxicillin-Potassium Clavulanate Combination / therapeutic use
Citation (ISO format)
BIELICKI, Isabella et al. Association between perioperative prophylaxis with cefuroxime plus metronidazole or amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and surgical site infections in paediatric uncomplicated appendectomy : a Swiss retrospective cohort study. In: Antimicrobial resistance and infection control, 2023, vol. 12, n° 1, p. 106. doi: 10.1186/s13756-023-01312-1
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Article (Published version)
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Identifiers
ISSN of the journal2047-2994
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