Scientific article
Open access

Lateral cephalometric characteristics in individuals with Down Syndrome compared to non-syndromic controls: a meta-analysis

Published inJournal of stomatology, oral and maxillofacial surgery, vol. 124, no. 4, 101407
Publication date2023-02-02
First online date2023-02-02

Objectives: The aim of this meta-analysis was to provide a complete synthesis of all studies involving lateral cephalometric measurements in Down Syndrome (DS) populations.

Methods: A literature search was carried out using six electronic databases to identify studies comparing cephalometric characteristics between populations with DS and control (healthy) populations. Studies were selected according to the research objectives, and predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Only the cephalometric measurements included in three or more studies were analyzed. The random-effects meta-analysis model was used for data analysis, and all analyses were carried out using RevMan5 software.

Results: From an initial 871 articles identified through the literature search, ten cross-sectional studies were finally selected based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Ten cephalometric measurements underwent meta-analysis, five linear and five angular measurements. Concerning the five linear measurements, namely S-N, ANS-PNS, Go-Gn, Ar-Go, and N-ANS all were significantly smaller in the DS population with the exception of Go-Gn. Of the five angular measurements, only three were statistically different between the DS and control groups. SNB and ANB angles were smaller in individuals with DS, whereas the basilar angle was larger. Subgroup analysis was also carried out based on age, and it was found that the gonial angle was significantly smaller before puberty, in individuals with DS. No differences between groups were found for the SNA angle.

Conclusion: There are significant cephalometric differences between individuals with and without DS. Individuals with DS have a shorter anterior cranial base, maxillary length, upper anterior facial height and mandibular height. The ANB and SNB angles were also smaller in those with DS, but the SNA angle showed no differences. These findings may indicate that the Class III malocclusion commonly found in individuals with DS does not seem to be due to mandibular prognathism.

Clinical relevance: Lateral cephalometric measurements in individuals with DS show significant differences from individuals without DS. Practitioners need to be aware of this and monitor growth from an early age in these children.

  • Cephalometry
  • Craniofacial development
  • Down Syndrome
  • Meta-analysis
Citation (ISO format)
BIERLEY, Kara, ANTONARAKIS, Gregory. Lateral cephalometric characteristics in individuals with Down Syndrome compared to non-syndromic controls: a meta-analysis. In: Journal of stomatology, oral and maxillofacial surgery, 2023, vol. 124, n° 4, p. 101407. doi: 10.1016/j.jormas.2023.101407
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Article (Published version)
ISSN of the journal2468-7855

Technical informations

Creation02/06/2023 12:21:09 PM
First validation11/13/2023 9:39:55 AM
Update time11/13/2023 9:39:55 AM
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