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PP1 phosphatases control PAR-2 localization and polarity establishment in C. elegans embryos

Published inThe Journal of cell biology, vol. 221, no. 10, e202201048
Publication date2022-10-03
First online date2022-09-09
Abstract

Cell polarity relies on the asymmetric distribution of the conserved PAR proteins, which is regulated by phosphorylation/dephosphorylation reactions. While the kinases involved have been well studied, the role of phosphatases remains poorly understood. In Caenorhabditis elegans zygotes, phosphorylation of the posterior PAR-2 protein by the atypical protein kinase PKC-3 inhibits PAR-2 cortical localization. Polarity establishment depends on loading of PAR-2 at the posterior cortex. We show that the PP1 phosphatases GSP-1 and GSP-2 are required for polarity establishment in embryos. We find that codepletion of GSP-1 and GSP-2 abrogates the cortical localization of PAR-2 and that GSP-1 and GSP-2 interact with PAR-2 via a PP1 docking motif in PAR-2. Mutating this motif in vivo, to prevent binding of PAR-2 to PP1, abolishes cortical localization of PAR-2, while optimizing this motif extends PAR-2 cortical localization. Our data suggest a model in which GSP-1/-2 counteracts PKC-3 phosphorylation of PAR-2, allowing its cortical localization at the posterior and polarization of the one-cell embryo.

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Citation (ISO format)
CALVI, Ida, SCHWAGER, Françoise, GOTTA, Monica. PP1 phosphatases control PAR-2 localization and polarity establishment in C. elegans embryos. In: The Journal of cell biology, 2022, vol. 221, n° 10, p. e202201048. doi: 10.1083/jcb.202201048
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ISSN of the journal0021-9525
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