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Title

Acute monophasic erythromelalgia pain in five children diagnosed as small-fiber neuropathy

Authors
Faignart, Nicole
Nguyen, Karine
Poloni, Claudia
Downs, Heather M
Laubscher, Bernard
Oaklander, Anne Louise
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Published in European journal of paediatric neurology. 2020, vol. 28, p. 198-204
Abstract The small-fiber polyneuropathies (SFN) are a class of diseases in which the small thin myelinated (Aδ) and/or unmyelinated (C) fibers within peripheral nerves malfunction and can degenerate. SFN usually begins in the farthest, most-vulnerable axons, so distal neuropathic pain and symptoms from microvascular dysregulation are common. It is well known in adults, e.g. from diabetes, human immunodeficiency virus, or neurotoxins, but considered extremely rare in children, linked mostly with pathogenic genetic variants in voltage-gated sodium channels. However, increasing evidence suggests that pediatric SFN is not rare, and that dysimmunity is the most common cause. Because most pediatric neurologists are unfamiliar with SFN, we report the diagnosis and management of 5 Swiss children, aged 6-11y, who presented with severe paroxysmal burning pain in the hands and feet temporarily relieved by cooling-the erythromelalgia presentation. Medical evaluations revealed autoimmune diseases in 3 families and 3/5 had preceding or concomitant infections. The standard diagnostic test (PGP9.5-immunolabeled lower-leg skin biopsy) confirmed SFN diagnoses in 3/4, and autonomic function testing (AFT) was abnormal in 2/3. Blood testing for etiology was unrevealing, including genetic testing in 3. Paracetamol and ibuprofen were ineffective. Two children responded to gabapentin plus mexiletine, one to carbamazepine, two to mexiletine plus immunotherapy (methylprednisolone/IVIg). All recovered within 6 months, remaining well for years. These monophasic tempos and therapeutic responses are most consistent with acute post-infectious immune-mediated causality akin to Guillain-Barré large-fiber polyneuropathy. Skin biopsy and AFT for SFN, neuropathic-pain medications and immunotherapy should be considered for acute sporadic pediatric erythromelalgia.
Keywords Analgesics/therapeutic useChildErythromelalgia/drug therapy/etiologyFemaleHumansMaleMethylprednisolone/therapeutic useNeuralgia/drug therapy/etiologyNeuroprotective Agents/therapeutic useSmall Fiber Neuropathy/complications/drug therapyVoltage-Gated Sodium Channel Blockers/therapeutic use
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PMID: 32723684
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FAIGNART, Nicole et al. Acute monophasic erythromelalgia pain in five children diagnosed as small-fiber neuropathy. In: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology, 2020, vol. 28, p. 198-204. doi: 10.1016/j.ejpn.2020.06.004 https://archive-ouverte.unige.ch/unige:157604

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Deposited on : 2021-12-22

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