Book chapter
Open access

Advancing Issues in Motivation Intensity Research: Updated Insights from the Cardiovascular System

Published inThe Oxford handbook of human motivation, Editors R. Ryan, p. 373-392
PublisherNew York : Oxford University Press
Edition2nd edition
Publication date2019

What determines effort intensity in instrumental behavior? According to motivation intensity theory, effort should be proportional to experienced task difficulty as long as success is possible and justified and low when success is impossible or excessively difficult, given the available benefit. When task difficulty is unspecified or unknown, effort should be proportional to the importance of success. We report an extensive program of research that has operationalized effort intensity as cardiovascular reactivity during task performance and used multiple manipulations of variables influencing subjective task difficulty (e.g., performance standards, instrumentality, ability, fatigue, mood, depressive symptoms, implicit affect, implicit and biological aging) and the amount of justified effort (e.g., material incentive, instrumentality, needs, personal and social evaluation, mortality salience). In this second edition of this handbook, we focus on recent empirical evidence for the principles of motivation intensity theory and discuss challenges for other theoretical accounts.

  • Effort
  • Motivation Intensity
  • Cardiovascular Response
Citation (ISO format)
GENDOLLA, Guido H.E., WRIGHT, Rex A., RICHTER, Michael. Advancing Issues in Motivation Intensity Research: Updated Insights from the Cardiovascular System. In: The Oxford handbook of human motivation. New York : Oxford University Press, 2019. p. 373–392.
Main files (1)
Book chapter (Accepted version)
  • PID : unige:124131

Technical informations

Creation10/04/2019 10:00:00 AM
First validation10/04/2019 10:00:00 AM
Update time03/15/2023 6:08:00 PM
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