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Fibroblast Growth Factor 15/19 - From Basic Functions to Therapeutic Perspectives

Published inEndocrine Reviews
Publication date2018
Abstract

Discovered 20 years ago, Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) 19, and its mouse ortholog FGF15, were the first members of a new subfamily of FGFs able to act as hormones. During fetal life, FGF15/19 is involved in organogenesis, affecting the development of the ear, eye, heart and brain. At adulthood, FGF15/19 is mainly produced by the ileum, acting on the liver to repress hepatic bile acid synthesis and promote postprandial nutrient partitioning. In rodents, pharmacologic doses of FGF19 induce the same anti-obesity and anti-diabetic actions as FGF21, these metabolic effects being partly mediated by the brain. However, activation of hepatocyte proliferation by FGF19 has long been a challenge to its therapeutic use. Recently, genetic reengineering of the molecule has resolved this issue. Despite a global overlap in expression pattern and function, murine FGF15 and human FGF19 exhibit several differences in terms of regulation, molecular structure, signaling and biological properties. As most of the knowledge originates from the use of FGF19 in murine models, differences between mice and humans in the biology of FGF15/19 have to be considered for a successful translation from bench to bedside. This review summarizes the basic knowledge concerning FGF15/19 in mice and humans, with a special focus on regulation of production, morphogenic properties, hepatocyte growth, bile acid homeostasis, as well as actions on glucose, lipid and energy homeostasis. Moreover, implications and therapeutic perspectives concerning FGF19 in human diseases (including obesity, type 2 diabetes, hepatic steatosis, biliary disorders and cancer) are also discussed.

Citation (ISO format)
SOMM, Emmanuel, JORNAYVAZ, François. Fibroblast Growth Factor 15/19 - From Basic Functions to Therapeutic Perspectives. In: Endocrine Reviews, 2018. doi: 10.1210/er.2018-00134
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ISSN of the journal0163-769X
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