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Integration of mycobacterial lipoarabinomannans into glycosylphosphatidylinositol-rich domains of lymphomonocytic cell plasma membranes

Arni, S.
Poincelet, Monique
Theler, J. M.
Brennan, P. J.
Nasir ud, Din
Published in Journal of Immunology. 1995, vol. 155, no. 3, p. 1334-1342
Abstract Lipoarabinomannans (LAMs) are major Ags of the mycobacterial cell envelope where they apparently insert through a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchoring structure. LAMs induce host macrophages to secrete TNF-alpha, IL-1, and IL-6 and inhibit T cell proliferative responses. The mechanisms by which LAMs mediate these effects remain poorly understood. We show that LAMs were efficiently inserted into the plasma membranes of human and murine lymphomonocytic cells through their GPI anchor. Prior deacylation of LAMs abrogated this event. Phosphatidylinositol hexamannoside (PIM6), the GPI anchor of all LAMs, competitively inhibited LAM insertion. Deacylated PIM6 was not inhibitory. The hexamannoside glycan of PIM6 appears to be important for LAM insertion, since phosphatidylinositol from soybean, lacking the glycan core, was not as efficient an inhibitor. Interaction of LAM with target cells was influenced by the gel/fluid phase distribution of membrane lipids, suggesting a direct interaction of the LAM-GPI anchor with the membrane bilayer. The inserted LAMs were mobile in the plane of the membrane and interfered with Ab-mediated mobilization of the GPI-anchored Thy-1 molecules. Further, LAMs were preferentially incorporated into isolated plasma membrane vesicles enriched in Thy-1. Our results strongly suggest that 1) interaction of LAMs with host lymphomonocytic cells is mediated through a preferential integration of LAM-GPI anchor into specialized plasma membrane domains enriched in endogenous GPI-anchored molecules, and 2) both the acyl chains and the mannoside core glycan of the LAM-GPI anchor contribute to the specificity of integration.
Keywords AcylationAnimalsAntigens, Bacterial/ metabolismCell Membrane/ metabolismFlow CytometryGlycosylphosphatidylinositols/ metabolismHumansKineticsLipopolysaccharides/ metabolismLymphocytes/ metabolism/ultrastructureMiceMice, Inbred BALB CMicroscopy, ConfocalMycobacterium/ metabolismMycobacterium tuberculosis/metabolismPhosphatidylinositols/ metabolismTumor Cells, Cultured
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PMID: 7636199
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