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Tissue specificity of mitochondrial glutamate pathways and the control of metabolic homeostasis

Published in Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 2008, vol. 1777, no. 7-8, p. 965-72
Abstract Glutamate is implicated in numerous metabolic and signalling functions that vary according to specific tissues. Glutamate metabolism is tightly controlled by activities of mitochondrial enzymes and transmembrane carriers, in particular glutamate dehydrogenase and mitochondrial glutamate carriers that have been identified in recent years. It is remarkable that, although glutamate-specific enzymes and transporters share similar properties in most tissues, their regulation varies greatly according to particular organs in order to achieve tissue specific functions. This is illustrated in this review when comparing glutamate handling in liver, brain, and pancreatic beta-cells. We describe the main cellular glutamate pathways and their specific functions in different tissues, ultimately contributing to the control of metabolic homeostasis at the organism level.
Keywords AnimalsAspartic Acid/metabolismCarrier Proteins/metabolismDiabetes Mellitus/metabolismGlutamate Dehydrogenase/genetics/metabolismGlutamic Acid/metabolismHomeostasisHumansMitochondria/metabolismOrgan Specificity
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PMID: 18486589
Research group Mitochondries et sécrétion d'insuline (671)
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