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Title

Pharmacokinetics of beta-adrenoceptor blockers in obese and normal volunteers

Authors
Cheymol, G.
Poirier, J. M.
Testa, Bernard
Weissenburger, J.
Levron, J. C.
Snoeck, E.
Published in British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 1997, vol. 43, no. 6, p. 563-570
Abstract AIMS: Obesity can modify the pharmacokinetics of lipophilic drugs. As beta-adrenoceptor blockers (BB) are often prescribed for obese patients suffering from hypertension or coronary heart disease, this study compares the pharmacokinetics of lipophilic beta-adrenoceptor blockers in obese and control subjects. METHODS: Nine obese (157 +/- 24% of ideal body weight (IBW) mean +/- s.d.) and nine non-obese healthy volunteers (98 +/- 10% IBW), aged 32 +/- 9 years, were included in the study. Subjects were randomly given a single i.v. infusion of one of the following racemic beta-adrenoceptor blockers, whose doses (expressed as base per kg of IBW) were: propranolol (0.108 mg), labetalol (0.99 mg) and nebivolol (0.073 mg). The plasma concentrations of unchanged drugs were measured by h.p.l.c. The ionisation constants and lipophilicity parameters of beta-adrenoceptor blockers were assessed. RESULTS: The pharmacokinetic data for the three drugs were qualitatively similar. There was a trend towards a greater total distribution volume (Vss) in obese patients than in controls. However, Vss expressed per kg body weight was slightly smaller in obese patients. The relationship between Vss and lipophilicity of five beta-adrenoceptor was studied by combining the current results with those previously obtained with a moderately lipophilic drug (bisoprolol) and a hydrophilic one (sotalol). The Vss of the five drugs was positively and well-correlated (r2 = 0.90; P < 0.01) with their distribution coefficient at pH 7.4 (log D7.4), but not with their partition coefficients. The linear regression coefficients for lean and obese subjects were very similar. CONCLUSIONS: Lipophilic beta-adrenoceptor blockers seem to diffuse less into adipose than into lean tissues. All electrical forms of the drugs (i.e. cations, neutral forms, or zwitterions) present at physiological pH contribute to their tissue distribution, in both obese and lean subjects. Their tissue distribution in obese patients could be restricted by the sum of hydrophobic forces and hydrogen bonds they elicit with macromolecules in lean tissues.
Keywords Adipose Tissue/metabolismAdrenergic beta-Antagonists/administration &dosage/chemistry/*pharmacokinetics/pharmacologyAdultArea Under CurveBenzopyrans/administration &dosage/chemistry/*pharmacokinetics/pharmacologyBinding SitesBisoprolol/blood/pharmacokinetics/pharmacologyBlood Chemical AnalysisBlood Pressure/drug effectsCardiac Output/drug effectsChromatography, High Pressure LiquidEthanolamines/administration &dosage/chemistry/*pharmacokinetics/pharmacologyFemaleHeart Rate/drug effectsHumansHydrogen-Ion ConcentrationInfusions, IntravenousLabetalol/administration & dosage/chemistry/*pharmacokinetics/pharmacologyMaleObesity/blood/*metabolism/physiopathologyPropranolol/administration &dosage/chemistry/*pharmacokinetics/pharmacologyRegression AnalysisSotalol/blood/pharmacokinetics/pharmacologyStereoisomerismTissue Distribution
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PMID: 9205815
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