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The NADPH oxidase NOX2 plays a role in periodontal pathologies

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Published in Seminars in Immunopathology. 2008, vol. 30, no. 3, p. 273-8
Abstract Oxidative stress plays an important role in periodontal health and disease. The phagocyte nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase NOX2 is most likely one of the key sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in periodontal tissues. This review will discuss three clinical aspects of NOX2 function. We will first focus on oral pathology in NOX2 deficiency such as chronic granulomatous disease (CGD). CGD patients are thought to suffer from infections and sterile hyperinflammation in the oral cavity. Indeed, the periodontium appears to be the most common site of infection in CGD patients; however, as periodontitis is also common in the general population, it is not clear to which extent these infections can be attributed to the disease. Secondly, the role of oxidative stress in periodontal disease of diabetic patients will be reviewed. Diabetes is indeed a major risk factor to develop periodontal disease, and increased activity of leukocytes is commonly observed. Enhanced NOX2 activity is likely to be involved in the pathomechanism, but data remains somewhat preliminary. The strongest case for involvement of NOX2 in periodontal diseases is aggressive periodontitis. Increased ROS generation by leukocytes from patients with aggressive periodontitis has clearly been documented. This increased ROS generation is to be caused by two factors: (1) genetically enhanced ROS generation and (2) oral pathogens that enhance NOX function. NOX enzymes in the oral cavity have so far received little attention but are likely to be important players in this setting. New therapies could be derived from these new concepts.
Keywords Diabetes Complications/enzymologyGranulomatous Disease, Chronic/complicationsHumansNADPH Oxidase/metabolismPeriodontal Diseases/enzymology/etiology
Stable URL http://archive-ouverte.unige.ch/unige:1052
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PMID: 18592239
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Research groups Groupe Mombelli Andréa (médecine dentaire) (242)
Radicaux libres et cellules souches embryonnaires (60)
Groupe Giannopoulou Ekatirini (médecine dentaire) (626)
Groupe Muller Frauke (médecine dentaire) (797)
Groupe Schaller Karl-Lothard (neurochirurgie) (851)
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