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Title

Energy cost of walking and running at extreme uphill and downhill slopes

Authors
Minetti, A. E.
Roi, G. S.
Published in Journal of Applied Physiology: Respiratory, Environmental & Exercise Physiology. 2002, vol. 93, no. 3, p. 1039-1046
Abstract The costs of walking (Cw) and running (Cr) were measured on 10 runners on a treadmill inclined between -0.45 to +0.45 at different speeds. The minimum Cw was 1.64 +/- 0.50 J. kg(-1). m(-1) at a 1.0 +/- 0.3 m/s speed on the level. It increased on positive slopes, attained 17.33 +/- 1.11 J. kg(-1). m(-1) at +0.45, and was reduced to 0.81 +/- 0.37 J. kg(-1). m(-1) at -0.10. At steeper slopes, it increased to reach 3.46 +/- 0.95 J. kg(-1). m(-1) at -0.45. Cr was 3.40 +/- 0.24 J. kg(-1). m(-1) on the level, independent of speed. It increased on positive slopes, attained 18.93 +/- 1.74 J. kg(-1). m(-1) at +0.45, and was reduced to 1.73 +/- 0.36 J. kg(-1). m(-1) at -0.20. At steeper slopes, it increased to reach 3.92 +/- 0.81 J. kg(-1). m(-1) at -0.45. The mechanical efficiencies of walking and running above +0.15 and below -0.15 attained those of concentric and eccentric muscular contraction, respectively. The optimum gradients for mountain paths approximated 0.20-0.30 for both gaits. Downhill, Cr was some 40% lower than reported in the literature for sedentary subjects. The estimated maximum running speeds on positive gradients corresponded to those adopted in uphill races; on negative gradients they were well above those attained in downhill competitions.
Keywords AdultEnergy MetabolismHumansMaleMountaineeringOxygen ConsumptionRunning/ physiologyTime FactorsWalking/ physiology
Stable URL http://archive-ouverte.unige.ch/unige:10359
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Other version: http://jap.physiology.org/cgi/reprint/93/3/1039.pdf
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PMID: 12183501
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