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Title

Cardiovascular changes during deep breath-hold dives in a pressure chamber

Authors
Ferrigno, M.
Ellis, A.
Warkander, D.
Costa, M.
Cerretelli, P.
Lundgren, C. E.
Published in Journal of Applied Physiology: Respiratory, Environmental & Exercise Physiology. 1997, vol. 83, no. 4, p. 1282-1290
Abstract Electrocardiogram, cardiac output, and blood lactate accumulation were recorded in three elite breath-hold divers diving to 40-55 m in a pressure chamber in thermoneutral (35 degrees C) or cool (25 degrees C) water. In two of the divers, invasive recordings of arterial blood pressure were also obtained during dives to 50 m in cool water. Bradycardia during the dives was more pronounced and developed more rapidly in the cool water, with heart rates dropping to 20-30 beats/min. Arrhythmias occurred, particularly during the dives in cool water, when they were often more frequent than sinus beats. Because of bradycardia, cardiac output decreased during the dives, especially in cool water (to <3 l/min in 2 of the divers). Arterial blood pressure increased dramatically, reaching values as high as 280/200 and 290/150 mmHg in the two divers, respectively. This hypertension was secondary to peripheral vasoconstriction, which also led to anaerobic metabolism, reflected in increased blood lactate concentration. The diving response of these divers resembles the one described for diving animals, although the presence of arrhythmias and large increases in blood pressure indicate a less perfect adaptation in humans.
Keywords AdultAtmosphere Exposure ChambersBlood Pressure/physiologyCardiac Output/physiologyDiving/ physiologyElectrocardiographyFemaleHeart Rate/physiologyHemodynamics/ physiologyHumansLactic Acid/bloodMaleMiddle AgedOxygen Consumption/physiologyTemperature
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Other version: http://jap.physiology.org/cgi/reprint/83/4/1282.pdf
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PMID: 9338438
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